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Former investment bank FX trader: news trading and second order thinking

Former investment bank FX trader: news trading and second order thinking
Thanks to everyone who responded to the previous pieces on risk management. We ended up with nearly 2,000 upvotes and I'm delighted so many of you found it useful.
This time we're going to focus on a new area: reacting to and trading around news and fundamental developments.
A lot of people get this totally wrong and the main reason is that they trade the news at face value, without considering what the market had already priced in. If you've ever seen what you consider to be "good" or "better than forecast" news come out and yet been confused as the pair did nothing or moved in the opposite direction to expected, read on...
We are going to do this in two parts.
Part I
  • Introduction
  • Why use an economic calendar
  • How to read the calendar
  • Knowing what's priced in
  • Surveys
  • Rates decisions
  • First order thinking vs second order thinking

Introduction

Knowing how to use and benefit from the economic calendar is key for all traders - not just news traders.
In this chapter we are going to take a practical look at how to use the economic calendar. We are also going to look at how to interpret news using second order thinking.
The key concept is learning what has already been ‘priced in’ by the market so we can estimate how the market price might react to the new information.

Why use an economic calendar

The economic calendar contains all the scheduled economic releases for that day and week. Even if you purely trade based on technical analysis, you still must know what is in store.

https://preview.redd.it/20xdiq6gq4k51.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=6cd47186db1039be7df4d7ad6782de36da48f1db
Why? Three main reasons.
Firstly, releases can help provide direction. They create trends. For example if GBPUSD has been fluctuating aimlessly within a range and suddenly the Bank of England starts raising rates you better believe the British Pound will start to move. Big news events often start long-term trends which you can trade around.
Secondly, a lot of the volatility occurs around these events. This is because these events give the market new information. Prior to a big scheduled release like the US Non Farm Payrolls you might find no one wants to take a big position. After it is released the market may move violently and potentially not just in a single direction - often prices may overshoot and come back down. Even without a trend this volatility provides lots of trading opportunities for the day trader.

https://preview.redd.it/u17iwbhiq4k51.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=98ea8ed154c9468cb62037668c38e7387f2435af
Finally, these releases can change trends. Going into a huge release because of a technical indicator makes little sense. Everything could reverse and stop you out in a moment. You need to be aware of which events are likely to influence the positions you have on so you can decide whether to keep the positions or flatten exposure before the binary event for which you have no edge.
Most traders will therefore ‘scan’ the calendar for the week ahead, noting what the big events are and when they will occur. Then you can focus on each day at a time.

Reading the economic calendar


Most calendars show events cut by trading day. Helpfully they adjust the time of each release to your own timezone. For example we can see that the Bank of Japan Interest Rate decision is happening at 4am local time for this particular London-based trader.

https://preview.redd.it/lmx0q9qoq4k51.jpg?width=1200&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=c6e9e1533b1ba236e51296de8db3be55dfa78ba1

Note that some events do not happen at a specific time. Think of a Central Banker’s speech for example - this can go on for an hour. It is not like an economic statistic that gets released at a precise time. Clicking the finger emoji will open up additional information on each event.

Event importance

How do you define importance? Well, some events are always unimportant. With the greatest of respect to Italian farmers, nobody cares about mundane releases like Italian farm productivity figures.
Other events always seem to be important. That means, markets consistently react to them and prices move. Interest rate decisions are an example of consistently high importance events.
So the Medium and High can be thought of as guides to how much each event typically affects markets. They are not perfect guides, however, as different events are more or less important depending on the circumstances.
For example, imagine the UK economy was undergoing a consumer-led recovery. The Central Bank has said it would raise interest rates (making GBPUSD move higher) if they feel the consumer is confident.
Consumer confidence data would suddenly become an extremely important event. At other times, when the Central Bank has not said it is focused on the consumer, this release might be near irrelevant.

Knowing what's priced in

Next to each piece of economic data you can normally see three figures. Actual, Forecast, and Previous.
  • Actual refers to the number as it is released.
  • Forecast refers to the consensus estimate from analysts.
  • Previous is what it was last time.
We are going to look at this in a bit more detail later but what you care about is when numbers are better or worse than expected. Whether a number is ‘good’ or ‘bad’ really does not matter much. Yes, really.

Once you understand that markets move based on the news vs expectations, you will be less confused by price action around events

This is a common misunderstanding. Say everyone is expecting ‘great’ economic data and it comes out as ‘good’. Does the price go up?
You might think it should. After all, the economic data was good. However, everyone expected it to be great and it was just … good. The great release was ‘priced in’ by the market already. Most likely the price will be disappointed and go down.
By priced in we simply mean that the market expected it and already bought or sold. The information was already in the price before the announcement.
Incidentally the official forecasts can be pretty stale and might not accurately capture what active traders in the market expect. See the following example.

An example of pricing in

For example, let’s say the market is focused on the number of Tesla deliveries. Analysts think it’ll be 100,000 this quarter. But Elon Musk tweets something that hints he’s really, really, really looking forward to the analyst call. Tesla’s price ticks higher after the tweet as traders put on positions, reflecting the sentiment that Tesla is likely to massively beat the 100,000. (This example is not a real one - it just serves to illustrate the concept.)

Tesla deliveries are up hugely vs last quarter ... but they are disappointing vs market expectations ... what do you think will happen to the stock?

On the day it turns out Tesla hit 101,000. A better than the officially forecasted result - sure - but only marginally. Way below what readers of Musk's twitter account might have thought. Disappointed traders may sell their longs and close out the positions. The stock might go down on ‘good’ results because the market had priced in something even better. (This example is not a real one - it just serves to illustrate the concept.)

Surveys

It can be a little hard to know what the market really expects. Often the published forecasts are stale and do not reflect what actual traders and investors are looking for.
One of the most effective ways is a simple survey of investors. Something like a Twitter poll like this one from CNBC is freely available and not a bad barometer.
CNBC, Bloomberg and other business TV stations often have polls on their Twitter accounts that let you know what others are expecting

Interest rates decisions

We know that interest rates heavily affect currency prices.
For major interest rate decisions there’s a great tool on the CME’s website that you can use.

See the link for a demo

This gives you a % probability of each interest rate level, implied by traded prices in the bond futures market. For example, in the case above the market thinks there’s a 20% chance the Fed will cut rates to 75-100bp.
Obviously this is far more accurate than analyst estimates because it uses actual bond prices where market participants are directly taking risk and placing bets. It basically looks at what interest rate traders are willing to lend at just before/after the date of the central bank meeting to imply the odds that the market ascribes to a change on that date.
Always try to estimate what the market has priced in. That way you have some context for whether the release really was better or worse than expected.

Second order thinking

You have to know what the market expects to try and guess how it’ll react. This is referred to by Howard Marks of Oaktree as second-level thinking. His explanation is so clear I am going to quote extensively.
It really is hard to improve on this clarity of thought:
First-level thinking is simplistic and superficial, and just about everyone can do it (a bad sign for anything involving an attempt at superiority). All the first-level thinker needs is an opinion about the future, as in “The outlook for the company is favorable, meaning the stock will go up.” Second-level thinking is deep, complex and convoluted.
Howard Marks
He explains first-level thinking:
The first-level thinker simply looks for the highest quality company, the best product, the fastest earnings growth or the lowest p/e ratio. He’s ignorant of the very existence of a second level at which to think, and of the need to pursue it.
Howard Marks
The above describes the guy who sees a 101,000 result and buys Tesla stock because - hey, this beat expectations. Marks goes on to describe second-level thinking:
The second-level thinker goes through a much more complex process when thinking about buying an asset. Is it good? Do others think it’s as good as I think it is? Is it really as good as I think it is? Is it as good as others think it is? Is it as good as others think others think it is? How will it change? How do others think it will change? How is it priced given: its current condition; how do I think its conditions will change; how others think it will change; and how others think others think it will change? And that’s just the beginning. No, this isn’t easy.
Howard Marks
In this version of events you are always thinking about the market’s response to Tesla results.
What do you think they’ll announce? What has the market priced in? Is Musk reliable? Are the people who bought because of his tweet likely to hold on if he disappoints or exit immediately? If it goes up at which price will they take profit? How big a number is now considered ‘wow’ by the market?
As Marks says: not easy. However, you need to start getting into the habit of thinking like this if you want to beat the market. You can make gameplans in advance for various scenarios.
Here are some examples from Marks to illustrate the difference between first order and second order thinking.

Some further examples
Trying to react fast to headlines is impossible in today’s market of ultra fast computers. You will never win on speed. Therefore you have to out-think the average participant.

Coming up in part II

Now that we have a basic understanding of concepts such as expectations and what the market has priced in, we can look at some interesting trading techniques and tools.
Part II
  • Preparing for quantitative and qualitative releases
  • Data surprise index
  • Using recent events to predict future reactions
  • Buy the rumour, sell the fact
  • The trimming position effect
  • Reversals
  • Some key FX releases
Hope you enjoyed this note. As always, please reply with any questions/feedback - it is fun to hear from you.
***
Disclaimer:This content is not investment advice and you should not place any reliance on it. The views expressed are the author's own and should not be attributed to any other person, including their employer.
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Covid vaccine: First vaccine offers 90% protection - BBC News

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 65%. (I'm a bot)
The first effective coronavirus vaccine can prevent more than 90% of people from getting Covid-19, a preliminary analysis shows.
Their vaccine has been tested on 43,500 people in six countries and no safety concerns have been raised.
The companies plan to apply for emergency approval to use the vaccine by the end of the month.
Pfizer believes it will be able to supply 50 million doses by the end of this year, and around 1.3 billion by the end of 2021.
There are logistical challenges, as the vaccine has to be kept in ultra-cold storage at below minus 80C. There are also questions about how long immunity lasts and the companies have not presented a breakdown of the vaccine's effectiveness in different age groups.
Dr Albert Bourla, the chairman of Pfizer, said: "We are a significant step closer to providing people around the world with a much-needed breakthrough to help bring an end to this global health crisis."
Summary Source | FAQ | Feedback | Top keywords: vaccine#1 people#2 end#3 first#4 companies#5
Post found in /Coronavirus, /worldnews, /unitedkingdom, /ukpolitics, /europe, /COVIDGoodNews, /worldnews, /worldnews, /CasualUK, /news, /tories, /news, /covidlonghaulers, /CasualUK, /BBCauto, /hackernews, /GreeceMeta, /ScienceFeed, /LockdownSkepticism, /neutralnews, /EverythingScience, /prohealth, /ForexForALL, /AutoNewspaper, /CertifiedNews, /NoFilterNews, /NewsOfTheUK, /medical_news, /UpliftingNews and /Coronavirus.
NOTICE: This thread is for discussing the submission topic. Please do not discuss the concept of the autotldr bot here.
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No, the British did not steal $45 trillion from India

This is an updated copy of the version on BadHistory. I plan to update it in accordance with the feedback I got.
I'd like to thank two people who will remain anonymous for helping me greatly with this post (you know who you are)
Three years ago a festschrift for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri was published by Shubhra Chakrabarti, a history teacher at the University of Delhi and Utsa Patnaik, a Marxist economist who taught at JNU until 2010.
One of the essays in the festschirt by Utsa Patnaik was an attempt to quantify the "drain" undergone by India during British Rule. Her conclusion? Britain robbed India of $45 trillion (or £9.2 trillion) during their 200 or so years of rule. This figure was immensely popular, and got republished in several major news outlets (here, here, here, here (they get the number wrong) and more recently here), got a mention from the Minister of External Affairs & returns 29,100 results on Google. There's also plenty of references to it here on Reddit.
Patnaik is not the first to calculate such a figure. Angus Maddison thought it was £100 million, Simon Digby said £1 billion, Javier Estaban said £40 million see Roy (2019). The huge range of figures should set off some alarm bells.
So how did Patnaik calculate this (shockingly large) figure? Well, even though I don't have access to the festschrift, she conveniently has written an article detailing her methodology here. Let's have a look.
How exactly did the British manage to diddle us and drain our wealth’ ? was the question that Basudev Chatterjee (later editor of a volume in the Towards Freedom project) had posed to me 50 years ago when we were fellow-students abroad.
This is begging the question.
After decades of research I find that using India’s commodity export surplus as the measure and applying an interest rate of 5%, the total drain from 1765 to 1938, compounded up to 2016, comes to £9.2 trillion; since $4.86 exchanged for £1 those days, this sum equals about $45 trillion.
This is completely meaningless. To understand why it's meaningless consider India's annual coconut exports. These are almost certainly a surplus but the surplus in trade is countered by the other country buying the product (indeed, by definition, trade surpluses contribute to the GDP of a nation which hardly plays into intuitive conceptualisations of drain).
Furthermore, Dewey (2019) critiques the 5% interest rate.
She [Patnaik] consistently adopts statistical assumptions (such as compound interest at a rate of 5% per annum over centuries) that exaggerate the magnitude of the drain
Moving on:
The exact mechanism of drain, or transfers from India to Britain was quite simple.
Convenient.
Drain theory possessed the political merit of being easily grasped by a nation of peasants. [...] No other idea could arouse people than the thought that they were being taxed so that others in far off lands might live in comfort. [...] It was, therefore, inevitable that the drain theory became the main staple of nationalist political agitation during the Gandhian era.
- Chandra et al. (1989)
The key factor was Britain’s control over our taxation revenues combined with control over India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its booming commodity export surplus with the world. Simply put, Britain used locally raised rupee tax revenues to pay for its net import of goods, a highly abnormal use of budgetary funds not seen in any sovereign country.
The issue with figures like these is they all make certain methodological assumptions that are impossible to prove. From Roy in Frankema et al. (2019):
the "drain theory" of Indian poverty cannot be tested with evidence, for several reasons. First, it rests on the counterfactual that any money saved on account of factor payments abroad would translate into domestic investment, which can never be proved. Second, it rests on "the primitive notion that all payments to foreigners are "drain"", that is, on the assumption that these payments did not contribute to domestic national income to the equivalent extent (Kumar 1985, 384; see also Chaudhuri 1968). Again, this cannot be tested. [...] Fourth, while British officers serving India did receive salaries that were many times that of the average income in India, a paper using cross-country data shows that colonies with better paid officers were governed better (Jones 2013).
Indeed, drain theory rests on some very weak foundations. This, in of itself, should be enough to dismiss any of the other figures that get thrown out. Nonetheless, I felt it would be a useful exercise to continue exploring Patnaik's take on drain theory.
The East India Company from 1765 onwards allocated every year up to one-third of Indian budgetary revenues net of collection costs, to buy a large volume of goods for direct import into Britain, far in excess of that country’s own needs.
So what's going on here? Well Roy (2019) explains it better:
Colonial India ran an export surplus, which, together with foreign investment, was used to pay for services purchased from Britain. These payments included interest on public debt, salaries, and pensions paid to government offcers who had come from Britain, salaries of managers and engineers, guaranteed profts paid to railway companies, and repatriated business profts. How do we know that any of these payments involved paying too much? The answer is we do not.
So what was really happening is the government was paying its workers for services (as well as guaranteeing profits - to promote investment - something the GoI does today Dalal (2019), and promoting business in India), and those workers were remitting some of that money to Britain. This is hardly a drain (unless, of course, Indian diaspora around the world today are "draining" it). In some cases, the remittances would take the form of goods (as described) see Chaudhuri (1983):
It is obvious that these debit items were financed through the export surplus on merchandise account, and later, when railway construction started on a large scale in India, through capital import. Until 1833 the East India Company followed a cumbersome method in remitting the annual home charges. This was to purchase export commodities in India out of revenue, which were then shipped to London and the proceeds from their sale handed over to the home treasury.
While Roy's earlier point argues better paid officers governed better, it is honestly impossible to say what part of the repatriated export surplus was a drain, and what was not. However calling all of it a drain is definitely misguided.
It's worth noting that Patnaik seems to make no attempt to quantify the benefits of the Raj either, Dewey (2019)'s 2nd criticism:
she [Patnaik] consistently ignores research that would tend to cut the economic impact of the drain down to size, such as the work on the sources of investment during the industrial revolution (which shows that industrialisation was financed by the ploughed-back profits of industrialists) or the costs of empire school (which stresses the high price of imperial defence)

Since tropical goods were highly prized in other cold temperate countries which could never produce them, in effect these free goods represented international purchasing power for Britain which kept a part for its own use and re-exported the balance to other countries in Europe and North America against import of food grains, iron and other goods in which it was deficient.
Re-exports necessarily adds value to goods when the goods are processed and when the goods are transported. The country with the largest navy at the time would presumably be in very good stead to do the latter.
The British historians Phyllis Deane and WA Cole presented an incorrect estimate of Britain’s 18th-19th century trade volume, by leaving out re-exports completely. I found that by 1800 Britain’s total trade was 62% higher than their estimate, on applying the correct definition of trade including re-exports, that is used by the United Nations and by all other international organisations.
While interesting, and certainly expected for such an old book, re-exporting necessarily adds value to goods.
When the Crown took over from the Company, from 1861 a clever system was developed under which all of India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its fast-rising commodity export surplus with the world, was intercepted and appropriated by Britain. As before up to a third of India’s rising budgetary revenues was not spent domestically but was set aside as ‘expenditure abroad’.
So, what does this mean? Britain appropriated all of India's earnings, and then spent a third of it aboard? Not exactly. She is describing home charges see Roy (2019) again:
Some of the expenditures on defense and administration were made in sterling and went out of the country. This payment by the government was known as the Home Charges. For example, interest payment on loans raised to finance construction of railways and irrigation works, pensions paid to retired officers, and purchase of stores, were payments in sterling. [...] almost all money that the government paid abroad corresponded to the purchase of a service from abroad. [...] The balance of payments system that emerged after 1800 was based on standard business principles. India bought something and paid for it. State revenues were used to pay for wages of people hired abroad, pay for interest on loans raised abroad, and repatriation of profits on foreign investments coming into India. These were legitimate market transactions.
Indeed, if paying for what you buy is drain, then several billions of us are drained every day.
The Secretary of State for India in Council, based in London, invited foreign importers to deposit with him the payment (in gold, sterling and their own currencies) for their net imports from India, and these gold and forex payments disappeared into the yawning maw of the SoS’s account in the Bank of England.
It should be noted that India having two heads was beneficial, and encouraged investment per Roy (2019):
The fact that the India Office in London managed a part of the monetary system made India creditworthy, stabilized its currency, and encouraged foreign savers to put money into railways and private enterprise in India. Current research on the history of public debt shows that stable and large colonies found it easier to borrow abroad than independent economies because the investors trusted the guarantee of the colonist powers.

Against India’s net foreign earnings he issued bills, termed Council bills (CBs), to an equivalent rupee value. The rate (between gold-linked sterling and silver rupee) at which the bills were issued, was carefully adjusted to the last farthing, so that foreigners would never find it more profitable to ship financial gold as payment directly to Indians, compared to using the CB route. Foreign importers then sent the CBs by post or by telegraph to the export houses in India, that via the exchange banks were paid out of the budgeted provision of sums under ‘expenditure abroad’, and the exporters in turn paid the producers (peasants and artisans) from whom they sourced the goods.
Sunderland (2013) argues CBs had two main roles (and neither were part of a grand plot to keep gold out of India):
Council bills had two roles. They firstly promoted trade by handing the IO some control of the rate of exchange and allowing the exchange banks to remit funds to India and to hedge currency transaction risks. They also enabled the Indian government to transfer cash to England for the payment of its UK commitments.

The United Nations (1962) historical data for 1900 to 1960, show that for three decades up to 1928 (and very likely earlier too) India posted the second highest merchandise export surplus in the world, with USA in the first position. Not only were Indians deprived of every bit of the enormous international purchasing power they had earned over 175 years, even its rupee equivalent was not issued to them since not even the colonial government was credited with any part of India’s net gold and forex earnings against which it could issue rupees. The sleight-of-hand employed, namely ‘paying’ producers out of their own taxes, made India’s export surplus unrequited and constituted a tax-financed drain to the metropolis, as had been correctly pointed out by those highly insightful classical writers, Dadabhai Naoroji and RCDutt.
It doesn't appear that others appreciate their insight Roy (2019):
K. N. Chaudhuri rightly calls such practice ‘confused’ economics ‘coloured by political feelings’.

Surplus budgets to effect such heavy tax-financed transfers had a severe employment–reducing and income-deflating effect: mass consumption was squeezed in order to release export goods. Per capita annual foodgrains absorption in British India declined from 210 kg. during the period 1904-09, to 157 kg. during 1937-41, and to only 137 kg by 1946.
Dewey (1978) points out reliability issues with Indian agriculutural statistics, however this calorie decline persists to this day. Some of it is attributed to less food being consumed at home Smith (2015), a lower infectious disease burden Duh & Spears (2016) and diversified diets Vankatesh et al. (2016).
If even a part of its enormous foreign earnings had been credited to it and not entirely siphoned off, India could have imported modern technology to build up an industrial structure as Japan was doing.
This is, unfortunately, impossible to prove. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication that India would've united (this is arguably more plausible than the given counterfactual1). Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been nuked in WW2, much like Japan. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been invaded by lizard people, much like Japan. The list continues eternally.
Nevertheless, I will charitably examine the given counterfactual anyway. Did pre-colonial India have industrial potential? The answer is a resounding no.
From Gupta (1980):
This article starts from the premise that while economic categories - the extent of commodity production, wage labour, monetarisation of the economy, etc - should be the basis for any analysis of the production relations of pre-British India, it is the nature of class struggles arising out of particular class alignments that finally gives the decisive twist to social change. Arguing on this premise, and analysing the available evidence, this article concludes that there was little potential for industrial revolution before the British arrived in India because, whatever might have been the character of economic categories of that period, the class relations had not sufficiently matured to develop productive forces and the required class struggle for a 'revolution' to take place.
A view echoed in Raychaudhuri (1983):
Yet all of this did not amount to an economic situation comparable to that of western Europe on the eve of the industrial revolution. Her technology - in agriculture as well as manufacturers - had by and large been stagnant for centuries. [...] The weakness of the Indian economy in the mid-eighteenth century, as compared to pre-industrial Europe was not simply a matter of technology and commercial and industrial organization. No scientific or geographical revolution formed part of the eighteenth-century Indian's historical experience. [...] Spontaneous movement towards industrialisation is unlikely in such a situation.
So now we've established India did not have industrial potential, was India similar to Japan just before the Meiji era? The answer, yet again, unsurprisingly, is no. Japan's economic situation was not comparable to India's, which allowed for Japan to finance its revolution. From Yasuba (1986):
All in all, the Japanese standard of living may not have been much below the English standard of living before industrialization, and both of them may have been considerably higher than the Indian standard of living. We can no longer say that Japan started from a pathetically low economic level and achieved a rapid or even "miraculous" economic growth. Japan's per capita income was almost as high as in Western Europe before industrialization, and it was possible for Japan to produce surplus in the Meiji Period to finance private and public capital formation.
The circumstances that led to Meiji Japan were extremely unique. See Tomlinson (1985):
Most modern comparisons between India and Japan, written by either Indianists or Japanese specialists, stress instead that industrial growth in Meiji Japan was the product of unique features that were not reproducible elsewhere. [...] it is undoubtably true that Japan's progress to industrialization has been unique and unrepeatable
So there you have it. Unsubstantiated statistical assumptions, calling any number you can a drain & assuming a counterfactual for no good reason gets you this $45 trillion number. Hopefully that's enough to bury it in the ground.
1. Several authors have affirmed that Indian identity is a colonial artefact. For example see Rajan 1969:
Perhaps the single greatest and most enduring impact of British rule over India is that it created an Indian nation, in the modern political sense. After centuries of rule by different dynasties overparts of the Indian sub-continent, and after about 100 years of British rule, Indians ceased to be merely Bengalis, Maharashtrians,or Tamils, linguistically and culturally.
or see Bryant 2000:
But then, it would be anachronistic to condemn eighteenth-century Indians, who served the British, as collaborators, when the notion of 'democratic' nationalism or of an Indian 'nation' did not then exist. [...] Indians who fought for them, differed from the Europeans in having a primary attachment to a non-belligerent religion, family and local chief, which was stronger than any identity they might have with a more remote prince or 'nation'.

Bibliography

Chakrabarti, Shubra & Patnaik, Utsa (2018). Agrarian and other histories: Essays for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri. Colombia University Press
Hickel, Jason (2018). How the British stole $45 trillion from India. The Guardian
Bhuyan, Aroonim & Sharma, Krishan (2019). The Great Loot: How the British stole $45 trillion from India. Indiapost
Monbiot, George (2020). English Landowners have stolen our rights. It is time to reclaim them. The Guardian
Tsjeng, Zing (2020). How Britain Stole $45 trillion from India with trains | Empires of Dirt. Vice
Chaudhury, Dipanjan (2019). British looted $45 trillion from India in today’s value: Jaishankar. The Economic Times
Roy, Tirthankar (2019). How British rule changed India's economy: The Paradox of the Raj. Palgrave Macmillan
Patnaik, Utsa (2018). How the British impoverished India. Hindustan Times
Tuovila, Alicia (2019). Expenditure method. Investopedia
Dewey, Clive (2019). Changing the guard: The dissolution of the nationalist–Marxist orthodoxy in the agrarian and agricultural history of India. The Indian Economic & Social History Review
Chandra, Bipan et al. (1989). India's Struggle for Independence, 1857-1947. Penguin Books
Frankema, Ewout & Booth, Anne (2019). Fiscal Capacity and the Colonial State in Asia and Africa, c. 1850-1960. Cambridge University Press
Dalal, Sucheta (2019). IL&FS Controversy: Centre is Paying Up on Sovereign Guarantees to ADB, KfW for Group's Loan. TheWire
Chaudhuri, K.N. (1983). X - Foreign Trade and Balance of Payments (1757–1947). Cambridge University Press
Sunderland, David (2013). Financing the Raj: The City of London and Colonial India, 1858-1940. Boydell Press
Dewey, Clive (1978). Patwari and Chaukidar: Subordinate officials and the reliability of India’s agricultural statistics. Athlone Press
Smith, Lisa (2015). The great Indian calorie debate: Explaining rising undernourishment during India’s rapid economic growth. Food Policy
Duh, Josephine & Spears, Dean (2016). Health and Hunger: Disease, Energy Needs, and the Indian Calorie Consumption Puzzle. The Economic Journal
Vankatesh, P. et al. (2016). Relationship between Food Production and Consumption Diversity in India – Empirical Evidences from Cross Section Analysis. Agricultural Economics Research Review
Gupta, Shaibal (1980). Potential of Industrial Revolution in Pre-British India. Economic and Political Weekly
Raychaudhuri, Tapan (1983). I - The mid-eighteenth-century background. Cambridge University Press
Yasuba, Yasukichi (1986). Standard of Living in Japan Before Industrialization: From what Level did Japan Begin? A Comment. The Journal of Economic History
Tomblinson, B.R. (1985). Writing History Sideways: Lessons for Indian Economic Historians from Meiji Japan. Cambridge University Press
Rajan, M.S. (1969). The Impact of British Rule in India. Journal of Contemporary History
Bryant, G.J. (2000). Indigenous Mercenaries in the Service of European Imperialists: The Case of the Sepoys in the Early British Indian Army, 1750-1800. War in History
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With Bitcoin Suddenly Surging, Canaan Stock Is Also Going Up Today

With Bitcoin Suddenly Surging, Canaan Stock Is Also Going Up Today



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Dollar off two-year low as investors await U.S. stimulus talks

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 61%. (I'm a bot)
TOKYO - The dollar held overnight gains on Tuesday following seven weeks of an almost relentless fall as investors clung to hopes of a bi-partisan stimulus deal in Washington and U.S. bond yields rebounded from multi-month lows.
The dollar index jumped back to 93.597 from Friday's two-year low of 92.495.
The dollar stood little changed at 105.96 yen.
U.S. congressional leaders and Trump administration officials said on Monday they were ready to resume negotiations on a coronavirus aid deal, although it was unclear whether Democrats and Republicans would be able to bridge their differences.
China imposed sanctions on 11 U.S. citizens, including Republican lawmakers, following Washington's sanctions on Hong Kong and Chinese officials.
U.S. Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin said companies from China and other countries that do not comply with accounting standards will be delisted from U.S. stock exchanges as of the end of 2021.
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Dollar set for biggest drop in three weeks as U.S. infection cases jump

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 48%. (I'm a bot)
LONDON - The greenback steadied on Friday but was set for its biggest weekly drop in three weeks as caution over growing coronavirus infections cast doubt over the U.S. economic outlook while a bounce in stocks pushed the kiwi dollar higher.
The governor of Texas temporarily halted the state's reopening on Thursday as COVID-19 infections and hospitalizations surged.
With markets undecided between hopes of a quick economic recovery and fears of a second wave of infections, investors focused on the dovish minutes by the European Central Bank this week to keep its stimulus policies in place for a while.
The euro EUR=EBS edged 0.1% higher versus the dollar and was set for its biggest rise in three weeks.
The New Zealand dollar NZD=D3 led currency gainers as encouraging recent data prompted investors to add risk positions despite the surge in infection rates.
Elsewhere, the Australian dollar fetched $0.6888 AUD=D4, stuck in its rough $0.68-0.70 range in the past couple of weeks.
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Dollar edges higher as Hong Kong tensions fuel safe-haven demand

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 64%. (I'm a bot)
TOKYO - The dollar edged higher on Monday as worries about a standoff between the United States and China over civil liberties in Hong Kong fuelled demand for safe-haven currencies.
A senior White House official has said Beijing's plan to impose a security law on the former British colony of Hong Kong could lead to U.S. sanctions, which could worsen an already tense relationship between the world's two-largest economies.
"Things were already bad, and it is likely to get worse because of the Hong Kong security law. This supports risk-off trades, which is positive for the dollar and the yen."
China's proposed national security legislation for Hong Kong could lead to U.S. sanctions and threaten the city's status as a financial hub, White House National Security Adviser Robert O'Brien said on Sunday.
Hong Kong police fired tear gas and water cannons to disperse thousands of people who rallied on Sunday to protest Beijing's national security law.
The threat of sanctions over Hong Kong risks a repeat of last year's damaging trade war between the United States and China.
Summary Source | FAQ | Feedback | Top keywords: dollar#1 Hong#2 Kong#3 States#4 China#5
Post found in /worldnews.
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Dollar set for biggest weekly rise since early April as euro tumbles

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 51%. (I'm a bot)
LONDON - The dollar gained on Friday and is set for its biggest weekly rise since early April as the euro weakened after a European Union meeting on Thursday to build a trillion euro emergency fund fell short of satisfying investors' concerns.
The euro weakened broadly on Friday, falling 0.4% against the U.S. dollar to a one-month low at $1.07275 and a three-year low versus the yen at 115.55 yen.
Though the outcome of the EU meeting fell short on details on the fund, specifically in terms of how it will be financed or whether it will be linked to the EU budget, some analysts took heart from the fact that the meeting didn't break up in acrimony.
The euro's losses sent the greenback on track for its biggest weekly rise since early April.
Against a basket of its rivals, the dollar was up 0.2% at 100.72.
The Aussie and kiwi each shed about 0.2%, holding the kiwi below 60 cents at $0.5996 and the Aussie at $0.6359, beneath resistance around 64 cents per dollar.
Summary Source | FAQ | Feedback | Top keywords: dollar#1 euro#2 meeting#3 weekly#4 rise#5
Post found in /worldnews.
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Review of Herring Shoes - Herring Wilson Chelsea Boots in Dark Leaf Calf [cross post from r/MFA]

Hi goodyearwelt, this is a cross post from my recent review of Herring shoes on MFA. I thought this community will find the review interesting too!
Photos of the boots
Specifications:
  1. Brand: Herring Shoes / Herring Shoes Website / The Boots I bought
  2. Model: Wilson Chelsea Boots
  3. Color: Dark Leaf Tan
  4. Construction: Goodyear Welted
  5. Sole: Leather sole with stacked leather heel and rubber insert for antislip
  6. Upper: Not listed on their website. I'll find out and update this
  7. Lining: Full leather lining
  8. Last: 11028 Last / Sleek
  9. Price: 300 GBP , $374 (+20 GBP for shipping)
  10. Size: 7.5 UK, 8.5 US (True to size)
  11. Origin: UK
Other shoe sizes:
  1. Allen Edmonds McAllister's: 8.5E US
  2. Beckett Simonon Dean Oxford: 8.5 US
  3. Common Projects: 8 US
—————————————
  1. Ordering Process/Shipping: Their website is a bit of a nightmare tbh. When you land at the home page there is an overwhelming number of brands that they represent. It's a classic tale of having too many options and paralyzing the customer with a bunch of options. Anyways, once you get acclimated to the website, it becomes easier to navigate. I also don't like how the photos of the shoes on their website seem slightly "airbrushed", which is always a bit scary because the color of the shoes may be off from what you receive. You also get charged an extra 20 GBP for shipping, which really sucks when you're paying over $350 for shoes. BUT the shoes arrived in 3 days from the UK which is crazy. My TLB Mallorca's still haven't been shipped and I ordered them on the same day.
  2. Selection of Products: If you know exactly what you're looking for then Herring shoes is great because they literally have everything. They have a wide range of widths available, different construction methods, and an incredibly diverse collection of shoes. I went with a shoe from the Herring Premier Collection which ranges from $374 - $400. They also have a Herring classic collection which are good year welted shoes that range from $200 - $400. But like I said before the huge product category can also be confusing, especially since the website isn't laid out well (in my opinion).
  3. Product Quality: These boots are beautiful. The color is really deep and rich. The leather is soft and a perfect thickness. In comparison, I find the leather in AE's (specifically my McAllisters) to be on the thicker side, which takes it longer to break-in. The shoes fit true to size and are a great immediate fit. Not one stitch is out of place. You can tell that the shoes have been hand-painted, there's character in each boot. The shoes come with two dust bags, a shoe horn, and shoe cream specific to the color of your shoe. My only gripe with these shoes is that the finishing where the leather is cut is not great, there is a stark difference in color (leather cutting, leather cutting 1) which stands out when I'm putting the boots on or I'm taking them off. It is unnoticeable when the shoes are on my feet, but still something that kinda bugs me. The shoes also wrinkle fairly easily around the back when you put them on and off - but this is to be expected.
  4. Fit/Comfort: The shoes fit true to size. But be aware that the last is narrow, so it is a little tight around the waist of my foot. I expected that when I ordered the boot. The shoes are pretty comfortable the few times that I've worn them, but this TBD as the shoes wear. Final point regarding fit is that the ankle opening is a decent size. I hate when Chelsea boots have wide openings at the top of the boot. The opening at the top is also determined by the elastic and how well it holds over time, so we'll see how that changes as the boots wear.
  5. Returns: I will be keeping these boots, but just FYI, if you do plan on returning the boots, the cost of shipping back to the UK is deducted from your refund. Also just be aware that returning these is a bit of a hassle because it will have to go through UK customs, so you will have to fill out a customs form and then drop off the package at a local DHL.
  6. Final Thoughts/Would I recommend these to a friend: I think these boots are incredible and that Herring shoes make great quality products. However, at the end of the day the boots also cost quite a bit (~$410 after shipping and Forex charges), and are not easy to return in case there's a sizing issue or quality issue (I don't expect them to have many quality issues tbh). In lieu of this, I would recommend Herring Shoes to a very specific type of friend, someone who knows and appreciates English shoemaking in particular, and I say this because I feel like I could have purchased similar boots in the US with much less risk. Luckily the size fit me perfectly.
Quality: 9/10
Design: 8/10
Fit / Comfort: 8/10
Worth the money/risk: 7/10
Enjoy the read, hope this helps! I have two requests from the community:
  1. Please provide feedback on the review. What did you like/dislike? How would you improve the review?
  2. Any brands you would like reviewed?
Also look forward to my TLB Mallorca review when the shoes come in!
Edit: Herring private labels shoes from other brands such as Church's, Barker, Loake - this particular boot is made by Cheaney.
submitted by Super_Saiyan_9000 to goodyearwelt [link] [comments]

Review of Herring Shoes - Herring Wilson Chelsea Boots in Dark Leaf Calf

Hi MFA,
This is a new community inspired review series that I am trying to start. See post here
Basically I'd like to try 1-2 risky/newer brands or products every month. For the initial review, I wanted to do shoes, and the community picked Herring Shoes and TLB Mallorca as the top contenders that they would like reviewed. This review is of Herring Shoes Wilson Chelsea Boots in Dark Leaf Calf.
Photos of the boots
Specifications:
  1. Brand: Herring Shoes / Herring Shoes Website / The Boots I bought
  2. Model: Wilson Chelsea Boots
  3. Color: Dark Leaf Tan
  4. Construction: Goodyear Welted
  5. Sole: Leather sole with stacked leather heel and rubber insert for antislip
  6. Upper: Not listed on their website. I'll find out and update this
  7. Lining: Full leather lining
  8. Last: 11028 Last / Sleek
  9. Price: 300 GBP , $374 (+20 GBP for shipping)
  10. Size: 7.5 UK, 8.5 US (True to size)
  11. Origin: UK
Other shoe sizes:
  1. Allen Edmonds McAllister's: 8.5E US
  2. Beckett Simonon Dean Oxford: 8.5 US
  3. Common Projects: 8 US
—————————————
  1. Ordering Process/Shipping: Their website is a bit of a nightmare tbh. When you land at the home page there is an overwhelming number of brands that they represent. It's a classic tale of having too many options and paralyzing the customer with a bunch of options. Anyways, once you get acclimated to the website, it becomes easier to navigate. I also don't like how the photos of the shoes on their website seem slightly "airbrushed", which is always a bit scary because the color of the shoes may be off from what you receive. You also get charged an extra 20 GBP for shipping, which really sucks when you're paying over $350 for shoes. BUT the shoes arrived in 3 days from the UK which is crazy. My TLB Mallorca's still haven't been shipped and I ordered them on the same day.
  2. Selection of Products: If you know exactly what you're looking for then Herring shoes is great, because they literally have everything. They have a wide range of widths available, different construction methods, and an incredibly diverse collection of shoes. I went with a shoe from the Herring Premier Collection which ranges from $374 - $400. They also have a Herring classic collection which are good year welted shoes that range from $200 - $400. But like I said before, the huge product category can also be confusing, especially since the website isn't laid out well (in my opinion).
  3. Product Quality: These boots are beautiful. The color is really deep and rich. The leather is soft and a perfect thickness. In comparison, I find the leather in AE's (specifically my McAllisters) to be on the thicker side, which takes it longer to break-in. The shoes fit true to size and are a great immediate fit. Not one stitch is out of place. You can tell that the shoes have been hand-painted, there's character in each boot. The shoes come with two dust bags, a shoe horn, and shoe cream specific to the color of your shoe. My only gripe with these shoes is that the finishing where the leather is cut is not great, there is a stark difference in color (leather cutting, leather cutting 1) which stands out when I'm putting the boots on or I'm taking them off. It is unnoticeable when the shoes are on my feet, but still something that kinda bugs me. The shoes also wrinkle fairly easily around the back when you put them on and off - but this is to be expected.
  4. Fit/Comfort: The shoes fit true to size. But be aware that the last is narrow, so it is a little tight around the waist of my foot. I expected that when I ordered the boot. The shoes are pretty comfortable the few times that I've worn them, but this TBD as the shoes wear. Final point regarding fit is that the ankle opening is a decent size. I hate when Chelsea boots have wide openings at the top of the boot. The opening at the top is also determined by the elastic and how well it holds over time, so we'll see how that changes as the boots wear.
  5. Returns: I will be keeping these boots, but just FYI, if you do plan on returning the boots, the cost of shipping back to the UK is deducted from your refund. Also just be aware that returning these is a bit of a hassle because it will have to go through UK customs, so you will have to fill out a customs form and then drop off the package at a local DHL.
  6. Final Thoughts/Would I recommend these to a friend: I think these boots are incredible and that Herring shoes make great quality products. However, at the end of the day the boots also cost quite a bit (~$410 after shipping and Forex charges), and are not easy to return in case there's a sizing issue or quality issue (I don't expect them to have many quality issues tbh). In lieu of this, I would recommend Herring Shoes to a very specific type of friend, someone who knows and appreciates English shoemaking in particular, and I say this because I feel like I could have purchased similar boots in the US with much less risk. Luckily the size fit me perfectly.
Quality: 9/10 Design: 8/10 Fit / Comfort: 8/10 Worth the money/risk: 7/10
Enjoy the read, hope this helps!
I have two requests from the community:
  1. Please provide feedback on the review. What did you like/dislike? How would you improve the review?
  2. What products/brands would like for me to review next? Down to do anything ranging from bags to skincare. I'm out of this months review budget, but can start planning for October.
Also look forward to my TLB Mallorca review when the shoes come in!
submitted by Super_Saiyan_9000 to malefashionadvice [link] [comments]

Dollar surrenders to euro and yen as rate supremacy evaporates

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 64%. (I'm a bot)
SYDNEY/TOKYO - The dollar nursed savage losses against the yen and euro on Friday as a plunge in U.S. yields to record lows wiped out the currency's single greatest attraction for investors - higher interest rates.
The resulting collapse in Treasury yields - which fell another 10 basis points in Asia - has been the death of one of the most popular carry trades globally - borrowing at negative rates in the euro and yen to buy U.S. assets.
"Select USD pairs like EUUSD are turning because of a dramatic and decisive shift in U.S. rate expectations and related spreads," said Alan Ruskin, global head of G10 FX strategy at Deutsche Bank.
There were lots of other miserable milestones, with the dollar sinking to a six-month low on the yen at 105.83, having shed 1.2% overnight.
The Australian dollar lost 0.3% to fetch $0.6585, off this week's high of $0.6646 as its rebound from 11-year lows of $0.64345 hit a week ago lost steam.
The Canadian dollar traded at C$1.3412 per U.S. dollar, near a nine-month low of C$1.3465 set last Friday.
Summary Source | FAQ | Feedback | Top keywords: dollar#1 U.S.#2 low#3 rate#4 yield#5
Post found in /Economics and /economy.
NOTICE: This thread is for discussing the submission topic. Please do not discuss the concept of the autotldr bot here.
submitted by autotldr to autotldr [link] [comments]

Dollar left devastated by surprise Fed rate cut

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 60%. (I'm a bot)
TOKYO - The dollar fell to a five-month low versus the yen after an emergency 50 basis point cut in interest rates by the U.S. Federal Reserve was deemed insufficient to offset downside risks posed by the global spread of the coronavirus.
The euro was one of the currencies to benefit most from the broad-based dollar weakness as traders bet the Fed will cut rates more than the European Central Bank.
"This Fed rate cut is bad for dollayen, partly because Treasury yields are now very low. The dollar's weakness is reflected in the euro, because the Fed will likely ease more that the ECB.".
The Fed surprised investors by cutting rates by 50 basis points to a target range of 1.00% to 1.25% on Tuesday, two weeks ahead of a regularly scheduled policy meeting.
Interest rate futures traders pricing in a 51.4% probability of a further 25 basis point cut in April, according to the CME Group's FedWatch Tool.
The rate cut failed to arrest a sell-off in U.S. equities and sent benchmark 10-year Treasury yields crashing to a record low 0.906%, further reducing the appeal of the dollar.
Summary Source | FAQ | Feedback | Top keywords: cut#1 rate#2 dollar#3 trade#4 Fed#5
Post found in /worldnews and /Economics.
NOTICE: This thread is for discussing the submission topic. Please do not discuss the concept of the autotldr bot here.
submitted by autotldr to autotldr [link] [comments]

Dollar regains footing after Fed-driven stumble

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 56%. (I'm a bot)
LONDON - The dollar recouped some losses on Wednesday as traders looked to see which other major central banks might follow the U.S. Federal Reserve and make emergency cuts to their interest rates.
The euro has been one of the currencies to climb on the broad-based dollar weakness of recent weeks and it had slipped back to $1.1145 ahead of U.S. trading from Tuesday's two-month high at $1.12135.
"We are looking at how the central bank community is going to react now," said TD Securities' European Head of Currency strategy, Ned Rumpeltin.
"The dollar's weakness is reflected in the euro, because the Fed will likely ease more than the ECB," said Masafumi Yamamoto, chief currency strategist at Mizuho Securities in Tokyo.
"The resurgence of Joe Biden will help to dampen some of the downside risks for the U.S. dollar given fears over a sharper shift to the left under Bernie Sanders have eased," wrote MUFG currency analyst Lee Hardman.
In the Chinese onshore market, the yuan touched asix-week high of 6.9288 per dollar, another sign of the dollar's weak bias.
Summary Source | FAQ | Feedback | Top keywords: dollar#1 Currency#2 bank#3 U.S.#4 cut#5
Post found in /news.
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submitted by autotldr to autotldr [link] [comments]

Virus containment hopes support Asian currencies

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 69%. (I'm a bot)
Across mainland China there were 2,015 new confirmed infections as of Tuesday, the lowest daily rise since Jan. 30.
The Australian dollar, sensitive to China's fortunes because of Australia's commodity-driven export profile, firmed 0.3% to $0.6728 AUD=D3.
Oil prices, a barometer of global energy demand and so of growth, remain nearly a fifth lower than they were before the outbreak.
The currencies of oil exporters such as Canada and Norway have been hammered, with the krone NOK= shedding 5% this year and the loonie CAD=D3 hitting a four-month low on Monday.
"The main impact of coronavirus for Europe is growth," said Steve Englander, head of global G10 FX research at Standard Chartered.
"The euro area started the year with low growth and an ECB largely out of policy options...(a) bad scenario could see an extension of recent moves and EUUSD may head towards the $1.04/05 lows of the European debt crisis."
Summary Source | FAQ | Feedback | Top keywords: low#1 growth#2 China#3 coronavirus#4 hit#5
Post found in /worldnews and /NotClickBaitNews.
NOTICE: This thread is for discussing the submission topic. Please do not discuss the concept of the autotldr bot here.
submitted by autotldr to autotldr [link] [comments]

Coronavirus outbreak to drive retreat to safe-haven currencies - Reuters poll

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 75%. (I'm a bot)
BENGALURU - The coronavirus outbreak grabbing the world's attention and which has likely wreaked havoc on its second-largest economy is set to give safe-haven currencies another lift over the coming month, a Reuters poll of market strategists found.
Analysts said the U.S. dollar index - calculated against a basket of six currencies - and the Japanese yen were both likely to gain a maximum of around 3% if the outbreak worsened.
All three are viewed as de facto safe-haven currencies, with the yen and franc the only major currencies to have made any gains against the dollar this year.
A majority of analysts - 46 of 52 - who answered a separate question said emerging-market currencies were at significant risk of weakening over the next three months.
Demand for safe-haven currencies was not expected to last, with most analysts predicting the dollar would lose against all major currencies over the next 12 months.
The dependence of the global economy on the United States and the dollar's role as the world's reserve currency means any downside is most likely to be limited.
Summary Source | FAQ | Feedback | Top keywords: dollar#1 currency#2 month#3 year#4 yen#5
Post found in /worldnews.
NOTICE: This thread is for discussing the submission topic. Please do not discuss the concept of the autotldr bot here.
submitted by autotldr to autotldr [link] [comments]

Dollar supported after upbeat U.S. data, pound steadies

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 51%. (I'm a bot)
TOKYO - The dollar held firm at start of holiday-thinned week on Monday after U.S. data pointed to solid economic growth while the British pound found some stability after having suffered its biggest weekly fall in three years.
A batch of economic data published on Friday showed the U.S. economy, already in its longest expansion in history, appears to have maintained the moderate pace of growth as the year ended, supported by a strong labour market.
Earlier this year, investors were spooked by fear of a U.S. recession when the U.S. yield curve inverted, which has been historically one of the most reliable signs of a U.S. recession.
Separate data showed consumer spending, which accounts for more than two-thirds of U.S. economic activity, rose 0.4% last month as households stepped up purchases of motor vehicles and spent more on healthcare.
Against the yen, the dollar was traded at 109.47 yen JPY=, up 0.04% from late U.S. levels, not far from six-month high of 109.73 touched earlier this month.
The dollar tumbled as much as 4.4% on the second trading day of this year as a lack of yen liquidity due to Japanese market holiday amplified the dollayen's fall sparked by a rare revenue warning from Apple Inc. Currency speculators have cut their net short positions in the yen slightly in week that ended last Tuesday after having increased bets against the currency constantly for a few months, data from U.S. financial watchdog showed on Friday.
Summary Source | FAQ | Feedback | Top keywords: U.S.#1 year#2 dollar#3 trade#4 data#5
Post found in /news.
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The future of online classes

Hey guys,
I just thought I'd drop a line about about my current project: https://online-classes.co.uk/the-50-50-promise/
Before you think I'm using Reddit to share my project without any thought — please hear me out.
I've been working in the affiliate industry for a few years now and it amazes me at how much money is made. Millions upon millions of pounds/dollars/euros/whatever in profit are generated monthly just by creating simple websites.
This is mainly through the gambling industry, but there are other examples (booking.com, trivago.com etc.) outside of betting.
My background is in betting, but recently I've been working on a side-project which aims to both help better educate ourselves, but also generate money for charity. This is my first project, and I wanted to get some feedback:
  1. Does the idea of purchasing something through a website, but also generating money for charity interest you?
  2. How would you like the charities to be chosen?
  3. Would you be willing to help promote the website through linking to pages on your blogs?
Yes, the third way is a way for me to generate back-links (I'm also quite a transparent person), but it's also a simple way you can support the growth of this project.
The idea will be to continue building a portfolio of non-gambling, non-financial (credit cards, forex, binary options etc.) affiliate websites which, one day, will help change the world.
The profits these websites can generate is incredible — I'm sure we can do something amazing.
And to answer the question 'why only 50% in net profits?', well as libertarians you can appreciate that profit is a natural part of our society; this way we can deliver for future shareholders, while also delivering for society. I think it's the best blend we can ask for in the 21st century.
I might be the owner of these websites, but my interests are in bettering society, not lining my own pockets. I can't prove that now, but one day I hope to prove any doubters wrong.
To show I'm not just a random guy, here's my LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/althughes/
If you have feedback you'd rather leave via email, contact me on [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
Thanks all,
Ashley
submitted by ov3rw4tchn00b to Courses [link] [comments]

Post Hard Deal Brexit Inflation.

This is in reference to the empty supermarket shelves report today. Caveats apply, things might not work out as bad as it seems...but here's a real sense of how bad it might be.
The pound won't necessarily crash on day one, in fact it might even have a good day out. The shelves won't necessarily be empty either. But in the case where the borders in to and out of the UK start to get blocked, as reported, imported goods will start disappearing off shelves. In turn, people might start to stockpile, and demand starts to increase for most goods in reaction to scarcity. Again, while stockpiles exist, there may not be an immediate crisis, but demand will be an issue. This in turn will mean that UK producers might have problems sourcing ingredients to produce their goods which will introduce scarcity of otherwise normally expected groceries.
Even at this point, if a customs solution is introduced relatively quickly, there will be constriction of foreign goods which would take sometime to work out of the chain. But even in such cases, said goods are now subject to tariffs. Already, scarcity is driving prices of select goods up, now tariffs add further cost to everyday goods.
Now remember I mentioned the pound? If we've got to this point, things aren't quite going so smoothly, add to that UK goods are getting squeezed out of neighbouring markets due to tariffs on the other side, and confidence starts to slip. A sliding pound will inevitably make everything more expensive in the UK, as in fact it has over the last five years.
Not really a problem in normal times, wages can go up to meet inflation, money might even be added to the supply. But here's the catch, if a whole section of the economy that relies on imports to produce it's goods now has to pay tariff's on both imports and goods exported, wages certainly won't be going up, and if anything people will be let go. Even companies such as the foods companies mentioned above don't export, tariffs will add considerable pressure, and to further compound that, their products might drop in sales as prices rise due to inflation.
This in turn adds pressure on the services economy who rely on having customers from other sectors who can afford their goods on a regular basis.
And all this adds major pressure on to the exchequer, meaning that harder austerity comes in, but in this case, projects such as HS2 and all major infrastructural investment are squeezed as well as having employment in the government sector decreases.
All in turn adding further pressure to the pound in the forex markets leading to feedback in inflationary terms.
Crazy thing is, you don't have to be an economist to understand this, it's the typical cycle of events when economies undergo this kind of pressure and there are more than a few examples throughout history. So while you have the project fear cranks crying that a few avocado's missing of a supermarket shelf won't make a bit of difference...it mightn't, but isn't the potential danger really fucking scary when you do think about it. Fear can be a good thing when it keeps your fingers out of the blender.
submitted by TheFreemanLIVES to unitedkingdom [link] [comments]

Barclays, JP Morgan among banks facing UK class action over forex-rigging

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 61%. (I'm a bot)
LONDON - Barclays, JP Morgan, RBS, UBS and Citigroup are being sued by investors over allegations they rigged the global foreign exchange market, in a test of U.S.-style class actions in Britain.
Litigators have long hoped to replicate in Britain the success of U.S. class action claims against banks, including Goldman Sachs, HSBC and Barclays, that have resulted $2.3 billion in settlements for big investors.
In May the European Union fined five banks a combined 1.07 billion euros for forex rigging through cartels of traders known as "Essex Express" and "Three Way Banana Split".
O'Higgins told Reuters the total value of the claim would depend on the number of forex trades executed in London for UK-domiciled units - which will be automatically included in the action - and the proportional impact of rate rigging on these.
CLASS ACTION TEST. The "Massive" action is a "Perfect" case to be brought as a so-called opt-out collective class action for breaches of UK or European Union competition law, David Scott told Reuters.
This wrangling has already delayed other class actions and some law firms have chosen a different legal route for offering pension funds, asset managers and other institutional investors the chance to hold banks to account.
Summary Source | FAQ | Feedback | Top keywords: action#1 billion#2 class#3 law#4 Scott#5
Post found in /europe, /worldnews and /ukpolitics.
NOTICE: This thread is for discussing the submission topic. Please do not discuss the concept of the autotldr bot here.
submitted by autotldr to autotldr [link] [comments]

Dollar drops as rate cut bets mount, weak inflation halts euro's rally

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 51%. (I'm a bot)
LONDON - The U.S. dollar weakened to its lowest since mid-April on Tuesday as investors bet the Federal Reserve could soon cut interest rates, while concerns about global growth encouraged investors to buy the safe-haven yen.
The euro rose on the back of dollar weakness but lower-than-expected euro zone inflation in May brought the single currency's rally to a halt.
The benchmark 10-year U.S. Treasury yield fell to its lowest since September 2017 overnight after St. Louis Federal Reserve President James Bullard said a rate cut "May be warranted soon" given weak U.S. inflation and the threat global trade tensions pose to economic growth.
The dollar index, which measures the greenback against a basket of currencies, slipped to 96.995, its weakest since April 18, before recovering as the euro reversed its gains.
"We still see the policy background in the euro zone leaving the euro as the anti-dollar," said Adam Cole, currency strategist at RBC Capital Markets, predicting euro/dollar could fall to $1.10 before finishing the year at $1.14 - still firmly within its current trading range.
The Australian dollar was little changed, at $0.6977, after the Reserve Bank of Australia cut interest rates to a record low of 1.25%, as expected.
Summary Source | FAQ | Feedback | Top keywords: dollar#1 euro#2 cut#3 rate#4 U.S.#5
Post found in /Economics.
NOTICE: This thread is for discussing the submission topic. Please do not discuss the concept of the autotldr bot here.
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Sistema de OPERAÇÃO MANUAL - GRID - FOREX How To Flip Your FOREX ACCOUNT in 2020  Forex UK - YouTube Forex Trading For Beginners UK (A MUST WATCH) FOREX TRADER DOUBLED HIS ACCOUNT IN ONE TRADE / Genius ... Ten Tips for BEGINNER FOREX TRADERS! - YouTube Forex Trading Course (LEARN TO TRADE STEP BY STEP) - YouTube LESSON 2 - ICI FOREX TRADING STRATEGY - YouTube

Forex, also known as foreign exchange, FX or currency trading, is a decentralized global market where all the world's currencies trade. The forex market is the largest, most liquid market in the world with an average daily trading volume exceeding $5 trillion. All the world's combined stock markets don't even come close to this. But what does that mean to you? Take a closer look at forex ... FOREX.com has not experienced server issues or outages during this time, so a solution may be to clear your browser’s cookies and cache, or trying a different browser. While you specifically mentioned being attracted to our web-based platforms, we wanted to make you aware of our desktop and mobile apps as a way to access your account. Wednesday, 21 June 2017. Ukforex Kundenraten Automatic Feedback after 31 days: Unknown: 9/3/2020 05:40:19pm: Buyer: Anonymous: Automatic Feedback after 31 days: Unknown: 9/2/2020 11:54:27pm: Buyer: Anonymous: Automatic Feedback after 31 days: Unknown: 8/25/2020 05:28:07am: Buyer: Anonymous: I have not experienced to invest in the Forex Limited. So I hope that I can earn money from this ... I have had a UK Forex account for several years and have made regular transactions abroad to a variety of beneficiaries. Until 2 weeks ago. When I tried to transfer funds (180GBP) for a hotel booking. UK Forex compliance had a problem because the receiving bank account was in the personal name of the owner and not in the name of the hotel - it's small family owned and run hotel, its not Ritz ... The Best Forex Brokers UK for 2020 – An In-Depth Overview. Hot Topics; Best FX Brokers; How We Decide? Forex Checklist; Choosing the Right Broker; Regulation and Safety; As one of the most powerful forms of money making today, foreign exchange – or Forex – is a huge industry. It’s a location where people manage to transform their money into profits, and vice versa, in a short space of ... UK Forex (clone of authorised firm) is not authorised or registered by the FCA but has been targeting people in the UK, claiming to be an authorised firm. Find out why you should be wary of dealing with this unauthorised firm and how to protect yourself from scammers. Stop using forex trading signals. If you are serious about forex, you need more than just signals. ForexSignals.com is going to give you everything you need to make it as a forex trader. You'll get daily signals from professional mentors Join daily live streams to watch & copy our trades Share your trade ideas and get pro feedback Get started Our Forex signal platform was founded by our forex trading team and optimised for the best entries and exits. Now you can use them for yourself to give you an edge in the forex market . Our Customer Feedback. Rated 4.7/5 based on 2431 reviews. I’m super impressed by the quality and the amount of daily signals I’ve been receiving. 5* from me! Sarah Lancaster – Plymouth. I was worried I ... OFX (previously UKForex in the UK) provides currency exchange services and international payment options for both individual and business clients. Since 1998, the firm has focused on providing cutting-edge technological solutions for its money transfer and international payments clients. It employs approximately 200 employees with offices spread across six continents. OFX is publicly listed on ...

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Sistema de OPERAÇÃO MANUAL - GRID - FOREX

Hey everyone! This is a video that I feel like all beginner forex traders to take into account when starting their forex journey. If you would like to join m... forex uk forex account what is forex trading foreign exchange trading forex for beginners day trading stocks forex trading basics forex trading demo forex forecast live forex charts how to trade ... FOREX TRADING uk $130 Per Hour Live Forex Trading For Beginners 2020 - Duration: 27:45. Jeremy Cash Young Ceo 31,649 views. 27:45 . 5 Things I Wish I Had Known When I Started Trading Forex ... This is a video testimonial to the Genius Trading Masterclass Course from Adam Smith from the UK. He was able to double his forex trading account in just one... Enroll in the complete course here with discounts of over 90% using this link: http://rebrand.ly/ForexFound Follow me on IG: https://www.instagram.com/Mohsen... in this video i will show you, what is ici strategy , how they work, what they do, and how we can benefit from these simple steps to profit off the forex mar... Hey Fam, I'm a UK Forex Trader. In this video I share how to Flip your FOREX TRADING ACCOUNT IN 24 HOURS TRADING FOREX. If you have a small forex account wat...

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